Cancer: An Overview

Cancer

Cancer: An Overview

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. It is an umbrella term for a large group of diseases caused when abnormal cells divide rapidly, and spread to other tissue and organs. It is a common condition. At least one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime.

The Burden of Cancer in USA & Worldwide

  • New cases of cancer is 454.8 per 100,000 men and women per year (based on 2008-2012 cases).
  • Cancer deaths is 171.2 per 100,000 men and women per year (based on 2008-2012 deaths).
  • Approximately 39.6% of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetimes (based on 2010-2012 data).
  • In 2014, an estimated 15,780 children and adolescents ages 0 to 19 were diagnosed with cancer and 1,960 died of the disease.

Worldwide

  • More than 60% of the world’s new cancer cases occur in Africa, Asia, and America (Central and South America)
  • 70% of the world’s cancer deaths also occur in these regions.

Ten Leading Cancer Types for the Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, United States, 2018.

Different terms in Oncology

Cancer

How it start?

When abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way. Some cancers may eventually spread into other tissues.

Cancer

This may cause a growth called a tumor.

Cancer

More rarely cancers start due to inherited faulty genes passed down in families.

Cancer

This is called a secondary tumor or a metastasis.

Cancer

Diagnostic For different types Cancers

  • A review of health history
  • Physical examination
  • Laboratory tests (blood, urine, etc.)
  • Bone marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
  • Imaging tests (X-ray, PET/CT, MRI, ultrasound, etc.)
  • Nuclear medicine scans (bone scans, etc.)
  • Endoscopy
  • Genetic tests
  • Colonoscopy
  • Mammography
  • Pap test

Treatment therapy for cancers

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Bone Marrow and stem Cells transplants
  • Targeted Cancer Drugs
  • Immunotherapy
  • Gene therapy
  • Other Treatments: Including laser treatment, photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy.